By: M. Farid W Makkulau, Culture Social Observer. Living in Pangkep, South Sulawesi.
(Diterjemahkan dari artikel M. Farid W Makkulau, “Kepemimpinan dalam Diskursus Demokrasi dan Good Governance”)
LEADERSHIP is the most essential thing in the discourse and practice of democracy. Democracy occupies a vital position in relation to the distribution of power within a country (usually based on the concept and principle of trias politica) with state power derived from the people should also be used for the justice and welfare (government of the people, by the people, and for the people) .
The principle of trias politica this becomes very important to be taken into account when many facts of history records that the authority of government (executive) is so large it was not able to establish a just and civilized society, even the government absolute power often lead to violations of Human Rights.
As with excessive power in the other state institutions, such as excessive power in the legislature, to determine its own budget for salaries and allowances of members without regard to the aspirations of the people, will not bring good to peoples, often hurting people’s feelings of fairness.
That is why every state institution not only be accountable, but there must be a formal mechanism for realizing the accountability of all state institutions and mechanisms capable of operationally (not just in theory) limit the power of the state institutions.
In Democracy, leadership is the primary assessment to see whether the right of the people is guaranteed. In the Leadership, to blame if democracy faucet clogged, jammed aspiration channel, not only the desire of the governed by the rule, and the amount of deviation of power that injure sense of peoples justice.
If a leadership no longer supports the sovereignty of the people and only perpetuate the sovereignty of the government or ruler. So that, in the cultural treasures of Bugis Makassar regarded as worthy of leadership that was dropped or canceled legal.
In structure it is described as follows, “Rusa’ taro arung, Tenrusa Taro Ade’, Rusa’ Taro Ade’, Tenrusa Taro Anang, Rusa’ Taro Anang, Tenrusa Taro Tomaega” (King canceled but the law does not void of the customary law, customary law void but not void of the society or peoples law).
In the term of Bugis, Democracy is defined ‘Amaradekangeng’, derived from the word ‘maradeka’ meaning independence or freedom. The notion of independence asserted in Lontaraq, “Naia riasennge maradeka, tellumi pannessai: Seuani, tenrilawai ri Olona, Maduanna, tenriangkai ‘riada-Adanna, Matellunna, Tenri atteanngi maniang lao, lao manorang, orai lao, lao alau, ase ri lao, lao ri awa”. (The so-called independent only to specify three things:
First, not hampered his will. Secondly, it is not prohibited from issuing an opinion. Third, it is not prohibited to the South, to the North, Go West, to the East, upward and downward . That the rights of freedom).
If this is connected with Rousseau’s Theory of Democracy, “Volonte Generale” and “Volonte de Tous”, it is clear that Rousseau’s theory corresponds with the past system of government that developed in the Land of Bugis is if the two interests (between the ruler and popular) collide, the interests that must be won is the people’s interests (common good).
In this case, the king or ruler is only a handful of people who were given the trust to take care of the administration, security, and implementation of state government. (Said, 1998 in Makkulau, 2009) .
Currently accommodating country through the presidential election of leadership system (leadership of the country), governor elections (provincial leadership), and other the election (local leadership), and during this implementation is regarded as an advancement of democracy. In this context, I consider that leadership to be achieved in this case is “Pamminawangang Tunipinawang”, ie the chosen leadership.
The selected leaders, rather than the leader of choice. Leadership of this type tend to form state and the government attached to the label ‘leadership of the ruling’, which tend to be authoritarian leadership, not control, and corrupt. What is reason ? due to a weakening of the functions of state institutions.
People here only needed at the time of the birth of leadership, but if the leadership had been established, the role of the people could be missing, omitted, eliminated and even suppressed. Leadership ruler was dropped because it is difficult to directly elected by the people, not by representatives of the people.
In the book “Le Social Contrac”, Jean Jacques Rousseau explained that the ruler or the government has made a covenant with his people, called by the term social contract, which is manifested in the form of Elections.
Through elections, people can choose who became his deputy in the process of channeling the aspirations which then determines of the country future. It is also found in the history of the founding of the kingdoms in the land of the Bugis Makassar, where the people in choosing a leader or king (Tomanurung) represented by the leaders of his people.
With direct elections (presidential, governor, and other elections), now or negotiating position of the people against the government’s social contract is very weak because the leaders are born from such a democratic process, leaving only a promises sweet and food during the campaign. If this had happened later, it happened rather than the progress of democracy but a setback for democracy.
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Good Leadership is also an essential condition of the realization of ‘Good Governance’. Good governance is actually a new term was first introduced around the year 1991 in a resolution of ‘The Council of the European Community’, which discusses Human Rights, Democracy, and Development where it was mentioned in the resolution of the four preconditions that must exist in realizing sustainable development, namely to encourage respect for human rights, promote democratic values, reduce excessive military expenditure budget and to realize good governance.
The term good governance has been interpreted as a mandate of governance (Bintoro Tjokroamidjojo), good governance (UNDP), the management of good governance and responsible (LAN), and there is also interpreted as a clean government.
In Bugis literature, to the realization of ‘good governance’, a leader has to have four personal qualities as revealed in the phrase ‘Bugis: Maccai Malempu na, na Waraniwi Magetteng’. (intelligent, honest, brave, and steadfast).
This expression means that intelligence alone is not enough. Intelligence must be accompanied with honesty, because a lot of smart people use their intelligence to fool others. Therefore, intelligence must be accompanied by honesty. Furthermore, courage is not enough. Courage must be accompanied by the establishment of persistence. People who are brave but not scholars and firm stance to fall in desperate
Terms implementation of Good Governance is also revealed in the Lontaraq that country’s leaders must:
First, be honest to the Dewata Seuwae’ (God) and his neighbor.
Second, the fear of the Dewata Seuwae’ and respect its people.
Third, Ability to fight for the good of his country for developed and developing countries, and ensure no occurrence of disputes between royal officials and the people.
Fourth, Ability to ensure the welfare of its people.
Fifth, Brave, decisive, not afraid to get bad news (criticism) and good news (not easily swayed flattery).
Sixth, able to unite his people and his royal officials. Seventh, the charismatic against officials and assistant.
Eighth, be honest in all his decision.
Then, I Mangada’cina Daeng Sitaba Karaeng Pattingalloang, Tuma’bicara Butta (Prime Minister) Gowa Kingdom advised that there are five reasons that cause can not achieve good governance, namely:
First, if the king who ruled not commemorated.
Second. If there was no scholar in a country.
Third. If the judges and royal officials venality.
Fourth. If too many events – major events in the country. Fifth. If the King is no longer loved his people.
In running the government, the king is always trying to act extra careful. Something that will be charged to the people must first be considered. The main reference of every action is the people. It is stated in the Speech (act – legislation) as follows, “my scales, I use to weigh, low is under, middle is middle, and if above, I put at the upper”.
Legal provisions are reflected in Bugis Talk on the ground indicate that the king will not be decided on a policy when the king himself did not feel comfortable. King makes himself as the size and always tried to act rightly.
From the argument, clearly illustrated that the state is fully owned by the people and doesn’t belong to the king (government). The king can’t take its own course to the country from people who belong to it. King in no way wishes to make the rules, especially regarding the interests of himself or his family. All laws which will be determined by the king to go through the approval of representatives of the people who have earned the trust of the people.
If the king violated that provision, means that the king had violated the sovereignty of the people. If there is something undesirable, then ensure the rights and indigenous people’s protests in five ways.
First, Mannganro ri ade ‘, Pleading for a petition (Filing an application to the King) to hold a meeting about things – things that bother you, such as long dry because it is possible as a result of government error.
Second, Mapputane ‘, submitted an objection or protest the orders/rules that burden the people with the King. If it concerns a group, they are represented by a group of his people to face the King, but if the Individual, directly facing the King.
Third, Mallimpo-ade ‘, which urged indigenous protest because of the arbitrariness of a king, and because of the business through mapputane’ failed. The crowd (without armor) held a meeting with state officials and not leave it unless the problem is completed.
The third addition to the above, also known Mabbarata, namely people’s protests against the king, because in principle people feel have been treated in accordance with Panngaderreng (custumary law) by the king, the royal family or royal officials. People gathered in Baruga and urged the matter be addressed urgently.
Otherwise, people could rampage (ajjallo) that can result in very fatal to the state of the country. The latter is Mallekke ‘dapureng, namely people’s protest action by moving to another country. This is done because it was not able to see the arbitrariness in the country and another protest is not effective.
They said: “We are the king sacked or customs, because we now break away from power”. (Mattulada, 1985 in Makkulau, 2009). Correction rights of the people against abuse leader/government is proof that the life of the state/governing human of Bugis Makassar past has stressed the element of “Democracy”.
Good Governance also emphasizes law enforcement as an obligation. In concept Siri’ ‘(shame, self-esteem) revealed that the human of Bugis Makassar, who do as they wish and no longer care about the rules and the traditional order (panngaderreng) are considered as human beings who do not have self-esteem.
Siri’ or self-esteem is a platform for leaders to always uphold the law without favoritism. Someone who does not have the Siri ‘likened to a walking corpse. In the words of Bugis mentioned: Siri ‘Emmi to riaseng tau (because just they are have ‘shame’ or ‘self esteem’ was called man). That’s why parents used to make Siri ‘as crucial in the advice – the advice, “Taroi alemu siri’. Narekko de ’siri’mu inrekko siri”. (Complete yourself with Siri ‘, If there is no siri’ you, borrow siri’).
Social history of the Bugis community in Makassar lot of records that law enforcement (Pangngaderreng) is a necessary condition the presence of Good Governance. In the XVI century, La Pagala Nene’ Mallomo, a judge (Pabbicara) in Sidenreng Rappang (a pupil of La Taddampare), impose the death penalty against his own son who is very loved because it has been proven to take the property of others. That incident has tarnished the face of his own father, known as an honest judge.
When asked why he did just that and deserves to assess whether the same piece of wood with a human soul, Nene Ma’lomo replied, “Ade’e temmakeana ‘temmakke eppo” (The law does not recognize the child and not know the grandchild).
Capital punishment was carried out to maintain her self-esteem as an honest judge in the middle of his people. Had he gives forgiveness to his son himself, surely he would bear the shame, be insulted by his subjects, and his authority as a ‘malempu pabbicara’ (honest) will disappear instantly. For the Bugis, the philosophy of ” taro ada’ taro gau” (same of words with deeds) is a must.
At the time La Manussa Toakkarangeng become Datu Soppeng (King of Soppeng), Soppeng People have suffered from hunger because of drought. He is investigating the cause famine, but no one royal official who acts arbitrarily.
After reflecting, remembering that he had picked up an item in the fields of a resident and he kept in his own house. The act he is what he thought caused the famine. He took the decision to punish himself by cutting buffalo and the meat distributed to the people. In front of his subjects in an event Tudang Sipulung, he declared himself guilty of having picked up an item from the fields of the people and keep it to myself.
Beautiful examples of other law enforcement, when La Pabbelle, son of Wajo King X, La Pakoko Topabbele’ raping women in Totinco Village, he is punished by his own father. Similarly, when To Angkone Ranreng Bettempola at XV ages, proved to kidnap a woman named We Neba to hand over to his friend Opu Rajeng of Luwu, he was sentenced dishonorably discharged and then expelled for life from the Land Luwu.
The same is true for self-La Temmasonge son of the King of Bone, La Patau Matanna Tikka in 1710 convicted “ripaoppangi tana” (kicked out of Bone and thrown into Buton) for killing Tiboyong man. The same firmness shown Datu Luwu who rid his daughter (a contagious skin disease) from the palace because of popular demand.
We certainly missed the firmness of the rule of law as exemplified above for Good Governance creation. Examples of past life which is indigenous human soul and spirit of Bugis Makassar is proof that it can only be practiced by King (Government) who has strong leadership.
Indigenous or ‘panngadereng’ not know the position, social class, degree of rank, socioeconomic status, or any other in imposing sanctions or penalties to anyone who commits an offense. Where was the human origin, whether he was a king, crown prince, the rich, noble, has no privilege in the life of Bugis Makassar society.
Good governance can only be realized if the position of elite groups and ordinary people are treated equal before the law. (***)