– PART ONE OF TWO ARTICLES-
IN THE HISTORY OF South Sulawesi, the three great kingdoms are Luwu, Gowa, and Bone are known. These three kingdoms have different titles for their Kings. The title of King Luwu is Datu Mappanjunge ‘ri Luwu, meaning the King who is shaded in Luwu. In writing, sometimes simply called Datu Luwu, Pajung Luwu or Pajunge ‘, then in fact that meant it was the King of Luwu. For the Kingdom of Gowa, its king title is called Karaeng Sombayya ri Gowa, meaning the King who is worshiped in Gowa. In writing, sometimes just called Karaeng Gowa, Somba Gowa, KaraengE ri Gowa or simply called KaraengE, then in fact that meant it was King Gowa.
Other Luwu and Gowa, the Kingdom of Bone also has its own title for the king, the Arung Mangkaue ‘ri Bone, meaning the King who is located in Bone. In writing, the usual title of the king was shortened, such as Arumpone, MangkauE, or ArungE ‘ri Bone then in fact that meant it was King Bone. In an effort to understand the history of the Kingdom of Bone, we will find many titles for the King and the nobility because Bugis Culture is prohibited (considered banned or pamali or sin) if it directly mentions the name of someone who is respected, especially the King. For example, King of Bone VI. The real name is La Uliyo, more commonly called Bote’E because of its stocky and fertile body. After a king died it was more commonly called the name of his death, like Matinroe ri Itterung, which means the King who died in Itterung (located in Bone).
The name of the High King of Bone which is widely mentioned in Lontaraq Akkarungeng ri Bone-the written source of Lontaraq on the history and the genealogy of King of Bone-generally for the male King, his name begins with La’s first word like La Ummase ‘, while for kings/nobles of women king , his name begins with a say We, like We Banri Gau. The high noble name commonly used in Bone under the King is Petta. For example Petta Pungawae, the designation for the Supreme Military Commander of Bone. Other royal titles in South Sulawesi also have their own characteristics. Soppeng Kingdom, its king is called Datu Soppeng, Kingdom of Sidenreng, its king also called Datu Sidenreng. For the Kingdom of Wajo, its king is called Arung Matowa Wajo.
In understanding the history of the King of Bone, it is also necessary to know in advance the Governmental Structure that prevailed during the Kingdom, which consisted of the Arung Mangkaue ‘ri Bone (King Bone) itself, underneath there Makkadangen Tana who served in the affairs of other royal relations (Minister of Foreign Affairs) Tomarilaleng who served in the affairs of the kingdom (Minister of Home Affairs). This Tomarilaleng is also called Ade Pitu (Hadat Tujuh), because it consists of seven main auxiliaries/leaders in the government of Bone, namely Arung Ujung (head of the Royal Bone Information), Arung Ponceng (head of Police/Attorney and Government affairs), Arung Ta ‘ (head of education affairs and chair of civil affairs affairs), Arung Tibojong (head of Landschap/Landschap case/Supreme Court case), Tanete Riattang Arung (head of the Royal Treasury, Taxes and Financial Control), Tanete Arung Riawang (head of State Works or Landschap Werken-LW) Road Tax and Superintendent of Opzichter) and Arung Macege (head of General Government Affairs and Economy).
Makkadangen Tana also directs Ponggawa (Commander of War) in charge of defense affairs. Assigned in Defense. Under Punggawa, there is Pangngulu Lompo (coordinating troops from the people of Tana Bone), Dulung (a kind of Panglima Daerah, in charge of coordinating subordinate kingdoms, divided into two Dulung, namely Dulungna Ajangale which controls the area of North Bone and Dulungna Awang Tangka which controls South Bone) Pangngulu Caddi (representative of Pangngulu Lompo), Anre Guru (coordinating royal elite forces), and Passiuno (ready-to-combat troops willing to sacrifice their bodily life for the sake of the sovereignty of Bone Kingdom). In structure Tomarilaleng or Ade Pitu oversees Tomarilaleng Lolo, Whitewater Palili or Sullewatang (King of subordinate or king of youth) and Head of Village.
In addition, there are also positions in the Kingdom called Jennang (Pengawas) whose duties in the field of supervision both within the palace, and with the subordinate kingdom. There is also Bissu, whose job is to take care of the heirlooms of the Kingdom, in addition to carrying out traditional medicine and pastors in terms of belief in the Goddess SeuuwaE. After the entry of Islam in the Kingdom of Bone, Bissu’s position was deactivated and replaced by Kadhi (Ulama) whose device consisted of Imam, Khatib, Bilal and others who served as Shia Priests in the Field of Islam. Kadhi (Ulama) is highly respected even Mangkaue ‘(King of Bone) often asks the Fatwa directly, especially regarding Islamic law. (*)