Pengantar: Tulisan dengan judul asli “Bontoa dalam Tinjauan Sejarah” ini ditulis oleh M. Farid W Makkulau dengan nama Akun Etta Adil di Social Blog Kompasiana (Sementara Tulisan di Kompasiana tersebut telah dihapus) . Karena banyaknya pegiat social media dan blogger yang mengcopas Tulisan tersebut tanpa menyebutkan sumbernya, penulis tulis ulang dalam Bahasa Inggris untuk menghindari penulis aslinya yang terindikasi oleh Google sebagai ‘tukang copas’. Ini sekaligus PERINGATAN agar setiap blogger yang mengambil, mengutip, atau menyalin tulisan orang lain agar menyebutkan sumbernya (linknya). Terima Kasih.
Author: M. Farid W Makkulau
BONTOA Actually is a famous name. In each area of Bugis Makassar in South Sulawesi there is certainly a village or wanua named Bontoa or Bonto, as well as the name Tanete or Tanetea. Writing of it’s named of Bontoa here, meaned is’ Bontoa Marusu ‘.
Bontoa located in Maros, the northernmost district of’ Butta Salewangan’, another name of Maros Regency, in its history is one of the domains of the Kingdom of Toddo Limayya ri Marusu’, a small kingdom successor of Marusu Kingdom Dynasty ‘after the Kingdom was conquered and made subordinate to the Kingdom of Gowa since the reign of King Gowa IX, Karaeng Tumapakrisika Kallonna.
The Origin of Bontoa’s Name
NARROWING Bontoa refers to soil conditions or low areas (lowlands). In Makassar is often called the word “A’bontoi” which means low or often also interpreted ‘often waterlogged’.
Yet there is no similarity in the conditions of all the regions called Bontoa or Bonto, because the ‘humility’ also has a low level in terms of topography is different – there are different, there are low, and there are very low. That is why it is common for us to hear, “liwa ‘sikali abbonto’na” to denote a very low area.
The condition of Bontoa or Bonto refers to wet rice paddy fields, swamps and areas near the access of rivers and seas. According to the informant, Mannyarang (Age about 80 Years), who met the author in Bontoa, said that the area Bontoa (District Bontoa Maros) was also called Tanetea. The area he referred to as Tanetea is a slightly higher area of the area that is interpreted as ‘Bontoa’.
The authors suspect that the name Tanetea is the name given to the area before people name it or interpret it as Bontoa. This refers from the information it says that Bontoa is an area that never drowned or stagnant water, so it is safe for the inhabitants, even then many people come in the area to live.
BONTOA is currently one of the sub-districts within Maros Regency, formerly called North Maros District, located on the border of Maros Regency with Pangkep District.
Of course, prior to the establishment of the district administration area, the border areas of these two Bugis Makassar districts are not as they are today, referring to the Kalibone border. In the past, this area was one, up in Mangemba, Soreang, Ka’ba, Panaikang, and other villages.
Kekaraengan (Nobility) of Bontoa
The massive expansion of Gowa since the reign of Karaeng Tumapakrisika Kallonna, King of Gowa IX, changed the political geography map of South Sulawesi. Marusu kingdom ‘which was once an independent and sovereign kingdom, directly under the domination of Gowa.
The Gowa attack to the north almost certainly does not get any meaningful resistance, the northernmost region of Marusu ‘, Bontoa which borders Binanga Sangkara, Barasa region (Pangkajene) is easily conquered since the reign of King Gowa X, Karaeng Tunipalangga.
In order to more easily control this fertile wetland farming area, I Manriwagau Daeng Bonto Karaeng Lakiung Tunipallangga Ulaweng, King Gowa X (1546-1565) sent I Mannyarrang, a nobleman from Bangkala, son of I Pasairi Daeng Mangngasi Karaeng Labbua Tali Bannangna, Karaeng Bangkala from his wife I Daeng Takammu Karaeng Bili ‘Tangngayya to become karaeng maggau’ in the region.
J.A.B. Van De Broor (1928) in his writings on the Randji genealogy of Regent Van Bontoa narrates Bontoa as one of the Marusu Kingdoms ‘territory founded by Karaeng Loe ri Pakere’ until finally I Mannyarang came as Somba Gowa’s ambassador to expand his territory around the region: (1) Bontoa, (2) Salenrang, (3) Sikapaya, (4) Balosi, (5) Pa’rasangan Beru, (6) Panaikang, (7) Tanggaparang, (8) Lempangang, (9) Panjallingang, 10) Feather End, (11) Batunapara, (12) Belang, (13) Suli – suli, (14) Panambungan, (15) Magemba, and (16) Tala’ Mangape.
It is worth noting here, that there is a Bontoa previously claimed as a territory controlled by Karaeng Marusu, based on the history of J.A.B. Van De Broor about Randji genealogy Regent van Bontoa (1928) which tells the presence of I Mannyarrang as Somba Gowa’s envoy to expand his territory.
And furthermore, Karaeng Marusu ‘invites I Manyarrang to open a new area that becomes the power of Gowa. However, in Lontaraq the lineage of Karaeng Loe ri Pakere as written by Andi Syahban Masikki, does not place Bontoa as a Marusu-dominated area ‘.
Karaeng Bontoa I – XXII
I MANNYARANG, Karaeng of Bontoa I
I MANNYUWARANG, Karaeng of Bontoa II
I Daeng SIUTTE, Karaeng of Bontoa III
I Daeng MANGNGUNTUNGI, Karaeng of Bontoa IV
I PAKANDI DG MASSURO, Karaeng of Bontoa V
I PANDIMA DG MALIONGI, Karaeng of Bontoa VI
I DAENG TUMANI, Karaeng of Bontoa VII
I MANGNGAWEANG DG MANGGALLE, Karaeng of Bontoa VIII
I REGGO DG MATTIRO, Karaeng of Bontoa IX
I PAREWA DG MAMALA, Karaeng of Bontoa X
I SONDONG DG MATTAYANG, Karaeng of Bontoa XI
I BAOESAD DG SITABA KARAENG TALLASA, Karaeng of Bontoa XII
I BAMBO DG MATEKKO (PETTA TEKKO), Karaeng of Bontoa XIII
ANDI RADJA DG MANAI (HOOF DISTRICT), Karaeng of Bontoa XIV dan XVI
ABDUL MAULA INTJE DJALALUDDIN (HOOF DISTRICT), Karaeng of Bontoa XV
ANDI MUHAMMAD DG SISILA (HOOF DISTRICT), Karaeng of Bontoa XVII dan XIX
ANDI DJIPANG DG MAMBANI (HOOF DISTRICT), Karaeng of Bontoa XVIII dan XX
ANDI RADJA DG MANAI KARAENG LOLOA (HOOF DISTRICT), Karaeng of Bontoa XXI
ANDI MUHAMMAD YUSUF DG MANGNGAWING (HOOF DISTRICT), Karaeng of Bontoa XXII (The Last of Bontoa Karaeng)
Marusu’ in Makassar War
The Makassar War was inevitable as a consequence of Bone-Soppeng’s escape from Gowa’s ‘colonization’. With the VOC (Dutch), the Arung Palakka led the Bugis resistance against the great Empire of the Eastern Archipelago, the Kingdom of Gowa.
The Makassar War left many memories in the former territory of the Marusu Kingdom, including the Bontoa. In the Year 1668, Maros warmly welcomed the Bugis envoy and expressed willingness to join against Gowa (Andaya, 2004: 157).
In the same year, in August, Gowa elite forces attacked Maros. The success of the Bugis troops in Day and Maros reminded the loyalty to Turatea (Andaya, 2004: 158). However, in November 1668, Makassar troops exploited the time slot during the negotiations with the Dutch Bugis to reclaim Maros, Siang, Labakkang, Segeri and Barru ( Andaya, 2004: 160).
In 1670-1672, Arung Palakka concentrated on rice fields in Maros and Bantaeng, two areas that were awarded to him by the Company as a loan for his loyalty to the Company (KA), then, according to Bugis sources, some of the Toangke were given Land in Maros and Segeri, an area originally inhabited by the inhabitants of Makassar.
In Year 1678, Arung Palakka divides the territory of its authority. Daeng Indeed, the son of the former Arumpone of La Maddaremmeng was given authority over Maros. (Andaya, 2004: 255).
In the period of 1562-1611, Marusuese people have united the Bugis Makassar’s blood as a result of the Conflict and the Gowa-Bone War in the form of descent, language, traditions and customs.
Conflict and War continued until the arrival of VOC (Dutch) which was signed by Arung Palakka (Bugis Soppeng) in Makassar War as described above. This history at least answers why Marusu ‘as a whole speaks both Bugis and Makassar as well.
Kabba Village and Pangkajene Marusu’
Kabba Village at the beginning of the XVII Century, entered at Barasa monastery. When Gowa conquered Barasa, Ka’ba’s village was not populated. Soon the village recovered from the effort of a man named La Mannyarang, a descendant of the king of Bangkala (Jeneponto), he settled in Bontoa, with the approval of King Gowa.
At first Bontoa just a kegallarangan, then just upgraded to kekaraengan. La Mannyarang together with migrants from Bangkala scored rice paddies and made new settlements in the former empty village.
Similarly, the village of Ka’ba under the rule of La Mannyarang. The village entered into Bontoa’s conquest until 1824, until the end of Reg I Daegu Mattiro’s rule, Karaeng Bontoa IX.
Ka’ba with some other kampung, Banggae, Japing-japing, Soreang, Pareang, Kalibone, Taraweang-Kabba, Galungboko, Udjung, Panaikang, Biringere, Tuarang, Massi, Djannae ‘and Pangkeng Sakiang are separated from Bontoa and subsequently incorporated in Kekaraengan Pangkajene (Makkulau, 2008).
I suspect, the existence of the Bontoa ri Marusu ‘, which includes also the Ka’ba region, the southernmost region of Barasa (Pangkajene) became the beginning of the mention of “Pangkajene Marusu” to distinguish it from “Pangkajene Sidenreng”. (*)