By: M. Farid W Makkulau
Tulisan Sebelumnya: Perjanjian dalam Sejarah Sulawesi Selatan
PALONTARAQ.ID – Makassar Bugis Society is a society that likes to make agreements (Buginese: Ulu Ada ‘, Makassarese: Ulu Kana), not only in social life, but also in the context of local government and political life.
The formation of a kingdom and the appointment of Tomanurung to be the first king in many lontaraq records always begins with a political agreement or social contract, a binding commitment between the leader and his people. This means that there has been a track record of democratic life in the past even though the government runs on the basis of the royal system.
Literally, Ulu Ada ’ and Ulu Kana in Local Language, Buginese or Makassarrese, means the base of the conversation. This word is meant as a treaty. For example: the Agreement in Tamalate (Makassarese: Ulu Kanayya ri Tamalate ‘, Buginese: Ulu Adae’ ri Tamalate).
The author checks all the words used to name a treaty between kings and kingdoms, generally using the words “Ulu” (head) and “Cappa” (Edge). The use of these two words means very seriously or confirms that the agreement made is not a playful thing, because it must be equally obeyed.
People or kings who break the agreement will usually be cursed as someone who has no head (Ulu). Usually we hear the phrase that states, “tau tenayya kulle nitanggala ulunna” or “tau tenayya kulle niteteng ulu Kananna”, which means a curse on someone who cannot be grasped by his words.
In another understanding, the Agreement in Bugis language is called “Ulu AdaE”. The use of this word, the author tries to understand that a covenant is not just holding words, but also means holding custom (pangngaderreng) because custom encourages someone to be “lempu” or “getteng”.
So, someone who violates the agreement can be cursed as someone who is also not possessed, in Bugis understanding. Perhaps this is also the reason why in friendship or ceasefire agreements, items or articles are always included so that those who promise to uphold each other’s customs and don’t damage the customs of other countries.
Usually also expressed in language, “don’t interfere in the domestic affairs of each”, because each country has different customs, including those not allowed to interfere with the inheritance of the throne (ulaweng matasa pattola malampe).
Examples of this can be seen in the Tamalate Agreement (Buginese: “Ulu Adae ‘ri Tamalate”, Makassarese: “Ulu Kanayya ri Tamalate”) during the reign of King of Bone VI, La Uliyo Botee Matinroe ri Itterung (1519-1544) and King of Gowa IX, Daeng Matanre Karaeng Tumapakrisika Kallonna (1512-1548).
Agreement “Ulu Adae ri Tamalate” which occurred in 1540 was a friendship agreement between Gowa and Bone. The articles in this Agreement describe how beautiful the brotherhood between Bone and Gowa, the two prominent kingdoms of the rulers of the western and eastern peninsula of South Sulawesi.
However, the peace period between the two lasted only for 24 years (1538-1562), before the first military offensive of Gowa to Bone in 1562 which was preceded by the cockfighting event ‘Manu Bakkana Bone vs Jangang Ejana Gowa’. (see article: Manu)
As an extraordinary war, the local war period of Gowa Vs Bone lasted from 1562-1611 until the time when Arung Palakka took Speelman (The Netherlands) to free Bone-Soppeng from Gowa Colonialism, the friendship that Gowa and Bone went through was also extraordinary.
The opening event of the first diplomatic relations between Gowa and Bone (1538) was even held as an event to confront the magic weapons of the two kingdoms, Lateya riduni (kelewang arajang) Bone and Sudanga (kelewang kalompoang) Gowa.
See article: Kedaulatan Adat Istiadat Setiap Negeri
The agreement that took place in Laccokong, Bone also marked the arrival of King Gowa for the first time stepping on Tana Bone. The return visit of the King of Bone, La Uliyo Botee to Gowa was what gave birth to “Ulu Adae ri Tamalate” whose sound of the agreement was also extraordinary:
1. Narekko engka perina Bone, maddaungngi tasie naola Mangkasae, Narekko engka perina Gowa makkumpellei bulue’ naoia to Bone.
(If Bone is threatened by enemy danger, then the sea is traversed by Makassar people, if Gowa is threatened by enemy danger then the mountain is crossed by Bone people)
2. Tessinawa-nawa majaki, tessipatingarai kanna Bone Gowa, tessiacinnaiyangngi matasa pattola malampe.
(Will not prejudice each other, will not attack each other, Bone-Gowa, and will not interfere in domestic affairs).
3. Iyyasi somperengngi Gowa, iyyasi manai ada torioloe, iyyasi somperengngi Bone, iyyasi manai ada torioloe’.
(Whoever pays the Gowa ark, it is he who inherits this ancestral mandate and whoever pays the Ark of the ark, he inherits this ancestral mandate).
4. Niginigi temmaringngerang riada torioloe, mareppai urikkurinna, lowa – lowanna, padai tello riaddampessangnge ri batue tanana.
(Anyone who doesn’t remember the mandate of this ancestor broke his pot, the country, like an egg being thrown onto a rock).
I consider this agreement an extraordinary agreement, the points of this agreement if it were implemented by the successors to the thrones of Gowa and Bone, history will tell another story.
However, said many people, the agreement was indeed made to be broken. And in many notes lontaraq, we finally found dozens of agreements that accompany this “Ulu Adae ri Tamalate”.
There was an agreement called “Ulu Kanayya ri Caleppa” (Buginese: “Ulu Adae ri Caleppa”) as the aftermath of Gowa’s fourth military attack on Bone (1565) which ended in a ceasefire.
The war won by Bone Kingdom was later renewed by a mutual agreement, which Gowa called, “Kana-kanayya iwarakanna Bone” (Agreement in North Bone).
Other agreements continue. The Bone then initiated the formation of the triaple alliance, “Mattellumpocoe ri Timurung” (1572), between Bone, Soppeng and Wajo as the unification of Bugis forces in anticipation of Gowa’s attack which was increasingly craved to become an unmatched ruler in the western and eastern peninsulas of South Sulawesi.
See article: Sabdo Pandito Ratu dan MakkEadani DatuE
Based on the bitter experience that Bone had to pass through the years of Gowa’s military attacks and Luwu’s military disruption, the King of Bone La Tenrirawe Bongkangnge was accompanied by a royal adviser, kajaolaliddong, trying to strengthen the stronghold of Bone to face the possibility of Gowa and Luwu’s military attacks.
With a diplomatic approach, King of Bone, La Tenrirawe Bongkangnge succeeded in forming a joint force between Bone, Soppeng and Wajo, in Kampung Bunne Timurung, North Bone in 1572.
Officially the formation of the three Bugis powers was attended by delegates from each of the kingdoms of Bone, Soppeng and Wajo. The Kingdom of Bone, represented directly by its king, La Tenrirawe Bongkangnge, adviser to the Kajaolaliddong kingdom and other rulers of the Bone Kingdom, the Kingdom of Wajo, led directly by La Mungkace Touddamang Arung Matowa, Pillae, Cakkuridie, Pattolae, and other officials of the Wajo Kingdom, and the Soppeng Kingdom, represented by La Mappaleppe Pong Lipue, Datu Soppeng Arung Bila, Arung Pangepae, and Padungrenge Arung “.
“Tellumpoccoe ri Timurung” stipulates the agreement principle as follows:
1. Malilu sipakainge, rebba sipatokkong, siappidapireng riperi nyameng;
(Commemorates those who disobey the agreement, enforce each other if there is one who falls and help one another in ups and downs).
2. Tessibaiccukang, tessiacinnaiyang ulaweng matasa, pattola malampe, waramparang maega pada mallebang risaliweng temmallebbang ri laleng.
(They will not play down their roles, they will not want each other to seize the throne and replace the crown prince and not interfere with each other’s internal affairs).
3. Teppettu – pettu siranreng sama-samapi mappettu, tennawawa tomate jancitta, tennalirang anging ri saliweng bitara, natajeng tencajie. Iya teya ripakainge iya riduai, mau maruttung langie, mawoto paratiwie, temmalukka akkulu adangetta, natettongi Dewata Seuwae .
(Will not break one by one but all must break, this agreement is not canceled because we die and will not disappear because the wind drifted out of the sky, it is impossible. Who does not want to be warned, it is he who must be attacked by both of us. Although the sky collapses and the earth flying, this agreement will not be canceled and witnessed by Dewata SeuwaE).
4. Sirekkokeng tedong mawatang, sirettong panni, sipolowang poppa, silasekeng tedong siteppekeng tanru tedong.
(Mutual strong buffalo, mutually break their thighs, mutilate buffaloes. This means they will provide military assistance to subdue strong enemies).
5. Tessiottong waramparang, tessipalattu ana parakeana.
(Will not fight over property and apply to future generations).
The substance of the agreement above shows that the three kingdoms, Bone, Soppeng and Wajo consciously formed a military defense pact to face their common enemy.
Thus “Tellumpoccoe ri Timurung” was the third force in the South Sulawesi region besides Gowa and Luwu at that time.
The “Mattelempoccoe ri Timurung” agreement also experienced ups and downs of understanding between the three kingdoms and gave birth to the next agreement as the development of power in the eastern peninsula and the extraordinary expansion of the Kingdom of Gowa.
In the back of the day, Wajo broke away and recognized King of (Karaeng) Gowa as his superior ruler. Arung Palakka himself before escaping to Buton still had an agreement in Atappang called “Pincara Lopie ‘ri Atappang” (1660) in an effort to reunite Bone and Soppeng in fighting against Gowa.
Gowa King, Sultan Alauddin (Daeng Manrabia Tumenanga ri Gaukanna) himself used Ulu Ada ‘(Agreement) in the past, between the Makassar kingdom and the Bugis kingdom on the eastern peninsula which stated that “Whoever gets the guidance and a better way of life, then who one must tell the other “.
On the basis of Agreement, that’s Ulu Ada used as a reason for Islamic warfare which in history is called “Bundu Kasallangan” (Buginese: Musu Sellenge) to convert other kingdoms that have not yet converted to Islam.
The King (Karaeng) of Gowa considers that Ulu Ade, that’s agreement must be enforced and obeyed, and the better way of life is Islam. Although King of Bone, La Tenrirua, understood and agreed with the purpose of the conversion, the people and the Hadat of Bone (Bone Council) did not obey it.
For the Bone peoples, with its military attack for many years until it was conquered by Gowa (1611), it was assumed that what King of (Karaeng) Gowa did was nothing more than a form of colonialism of a country against a sovereign state.
Not to mention the mobilization of forced labor of as many as 40,000 Bone-Soppeng peoples to Gowa in building the Makassar strongholds is another fact that is very painful for Bone-Soppeng.
The oppression and forced labor of thousands of Bone-Soppeng peoples later aroused the spirit of King of Arung Palakka’s resistance in freeing his country from the occupation of Gowa Kingdom.
In the history of King of Arung Palakka’s resistance and escape both in his own country, in Buton and while in Batavia, there were so many agreements, pledges and oaths created, as a form of popular affirmation and loyalty to the determination and spirit of Arung Palakka, Petta Malampeq Gemmekna.
The success of King of Arung Palakka took Speelman (the Netherlands) and this historical story ended in “Cappaya ri Bungaya” (Bungaya Agreement), in 1660. At that time, the big empire, the largest empire in Eastern Indonesia, the Kingdom of Gowa slowly moved to the point of destruction.
That is all that I can writed. Please respond and input about this articles. Tabe’ Mariki di’. (*)