Brief Record of The History of South Sulawesi

Lapangan-Merdeka_(sumber foto: tribunnews_mksr)

Field of Freedom, Arung Palakka Park at Bone.  (sumber foto: tribunnews_mksr)

By: M. Farid W Makkulau

PALONTARAQ.ID – The writing of local history is still dominated by the disclosure of the three great kingdoms that once existed in South Sulawesi, namely First, the Kingdom of Luwu whose king is called Mappajunge or Pajunge ‘meaning (king) that umbrella or shade. Also commonly called Datu Mappajunge ‘ri Luwu (meaning King who bermayung in Luwu).

Second, the Kingdom of Gowa, whose king is called Sombaya means (king) is worshiped. Also commonly called Karaeng Sombayya ri Gowa (meaning: the king who is worshiped in Gowa).

After Islam entered and accepted officially as a royal religion, King Gowa was then named Sultan. Third, the kingdom of Bone whose king is called Māla’e means (king) who reigns or reigns. Generally called Arung Mangkau’E ri Bone (meaning the throne or the reigning in the Bone).

Without undermining my respect and appreciation of local history, as a cultural observer I am quite concerned about the scarcity of regional history literature, especially in South Sulawesi, which in the XVII century is estimated to contain 50 scattered kingdoms, both in the eastern peninsula and in the western peninsula of Sulawesi peninsula South, a spreading of political power and seizure of influence between the Bugis and Makassar region, both before and after the Makassar War.

Surprisingly, if we take a walk to the big Bookstore (TB) in Makassar City, we can almost certainly find a book about the History of Gowa, Luwu and Bone in various versions and reviews.

But we will certainly be disappointed if we try to find books on the history of Tallo, Wajo, Tanete (Agang Nionjo), Limae ‘Ajattapareng (Sawitto, Sidenreng, Suppa, Mallusetasi’ and Rappang, Massenrempulu ‘(Enrekang, Maiwa, Malluwa, Alla’ , and Bonobatu), Galesong, Binamu, Bangkala, Marusu ‘, Siang, Lombasang etc.

All the districts in South Sulawesi have stood and developed a kingdom that colored power politics in this area, unfortunately this is not much expressed by historians local.

Some of the books I received from a friend’s submission (for the sake of appreciating an intellectual work and the first step of building the history library of South Sulawesi, I see no need to mention the author and his book) were written by-sorry, a fellow writer who was not a Bugis Makassar man.

History is history, must be written as is. But a history, it does not stand alone. There is a cultural influence that coloring the journey of history. A writer of the history of South Sulawesi must understand what is a symbol of power, how the “salasila” (descendants) are built on the basis of the existence of “Tomanurung”, how the conception of succession is built, and “ulu ada” is agreed, what is siri ‘ institutions of self-esteem and pacce ‘ or pesse’ as a form of awareness (solidarity), spirit of togetherness, and so forth. For a while after reading the book, to be honest I was a bit disappointed.

Some of the glaring blunders of local history are to equate the perception or missunderstanding between nobility and kings. For example equate between Karaeng and Sombayya, Arung and Mangkaue ‘, Datu and Pajunge’. The truth is Sombayya is definitely karaeng, Mangkaue ‘is definitely Arung, Pajunge’ is definitely Datu, but not all Karaeng, Arung and Datu can be Karaeng Sombayya, Arung Mangkaue ‘and Datu Ma’pajunge’. This distinction not only concerns the charisma of a power, but also concerns the mention of language-respect for the different nobles and kings.

Just for example, according to adab if a people speaks with the nobility of Luwu (Datu), then it is enough for him to answer, “Iye” (the word is a polite reply, meaning yes). It is different if answering a king (Pajung), then he should reply, “Usompai Pajunge”. (meaning: I worship the command). This applies also to the mention of “Whitewater” and “Arung Mangkaue” in Bone and “Karaeng” and “Karaeng Sombayya” in Gowa.

Another example, there are two newborn kings (twins), a King of Luwu (Pajunge’) if asked to sanro boto (the royal nurse) then will ask, “Aga rupanna jemma barue ‘, sanro boto?” (how his face the future king?).

And when his twin sister was born, then King of Luwu will asked with different language, “aga rupanna, tau warue ‘, sanro boto?”. (how her face a newborn child?).  The first is called “Jemma”, while the latter is called “tau warue”. Both words mean “new person”, the first difference is defined as the “son of mattola” (crown prince) while the second is “not the crown prince” (anakangileng).

So a little note about the writing of History of South Sulawesi. This bit of correction is at least asserted that History is not enough to be studied, but it must be “understood” in its true sense, not just the historical contextualization itself, but also the socio-cultural aspect that embodies it. (*)

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