By: M. Farid W Makkulau
The Kingdom of Siang
In the second period, in line with the more distant shoreline due to the deposition of river of “Siang” as the main access into the city, and the move to a Gowa Malay merchant colony on the west coast, even up to Suppa and Sidenreng in the central plains of South Sulawesi make Siang lost its main function as a port important, coupled meredupnya influence political center. Until here, no different fate Siang Bantaeng, exist but are under the shadow of power control Gowa-Tallo.
Center of “Kingdom of Siang” was originally grown thanks to the natural resources: marine, forest products and minerals and rice fields may be exploited by a population of Makassar, which has long recognized the vast sea trading network by utilizing the estuary of the river as the main communication access.
The frequency of contacts with other communities bring about change in economic patterns, especially after knowing wet rice cultivation technology (rice field) and enable the transition of economic activities to the hinterland with the opening of forests to increased production of rice as a main commodity.
Tome Pires noted that one year after the fall of Malacca (1511), the islands of Macacar (Makassar) is the place – a place that is bound in the inter-island trade network. Although Pires, Macacar suspect that trade is less important, but since then, already offers a direct route to the Moluccas with the coast – south coast of Kalimantan and Sulawesi; an alternative to the traditional route through the northern coast of Java and Nusa Tenggara islands.
But we have to wait until mid-sixteenth century, to find a picture of South Sulawesi, that since travel Antonio de Paiva (1542-1543) and Manuel Pinto (1545-1548) to the west coast of South Sulawesi. Tome Pires refer to rice as a main product Macacar. And in fact, recently been Portuguese sailors will have a special impression fertility countries of South Sulawesi is famous for its forest products, rice and other food. (Cortesao, 1944 in M Ali Fadhillah, 2000).
Colonial milestone in Gowa in 1667 also impacted strongly on the afternoon. Defeat Gowa face-Bone Dutch alliance also means the defeat of the dynasty and resurgence of Gowa Barasa dynasty that supports Palakka Whitewater. I Johoro Pa’rasanya Tubarania rise as local authorities, I Joro also dubbed Lo’moki Ba’le (ruler of the opposite), since he returned from overseas (Java and Sumatra) follows the Whitewater Palakka mission to the country west of the archipelago.
History of Lombassang (Labakkang) becoming known after the economic decline of political prestige “Siang”. Ruler Labakkang helped subdue the kingdom of Gowa Barasa, dynastic successor in Pangkajene after “Siang”.
After losing to Holland Gowa (1667), Gowa Labakkang out of and into the VOC control before becoming the administrative area Noorderpprovincien, then become Noorderdistrichten the administrative control of the Netherlands is based in Fort Rotterdam (Benteng Jumpandang).
Somba Labakkang when it was accompanied by members of indigenous Bujung Tallua, the ruling political and territorial unit itself, namely in Malise, Mangallekana and Lombasang, before more complex with the merger of other small rulers.
The political system of the Kingdom of Gowa adopted against the country – it is putting the country conquests Ana ‘Karaeng Bate, Bate-bate’a commonly called). then followed by the Kingdom of Gowa family marriage, at its peak afternoon into the country the Kingdom of Gowa royal family could no longer be separated until the year 1668. Until now no single source to ensure the life history of the kingdom until conquered the kingdom of Gowa – Tallo. Noon under the hegemony of the Kingdom of Gowa government around 1512 to 1668.
Culture system that characterizes the life of society is the tradition of cultural of “Siang” Gowa, particularly concerning the relationship of marriage between the king and royal family Gowa. Noon rulers have family connections with the royal family Luwu, Soppeng, Tanete, and Bone because the kingdom of Gowa family also entered into a marriage relationship (breed) between the Kingdom Luwu family. Then Luwu breed with Soppeng, Soppeng breed with Tanete and breed with Tanete Bone.
In summary, offspring mating system products, “kawin mawin” it has wider kinship relations. Day and several units of political territories like Barasa (Pangkajene), Lombasang (Labakkang), Segeri, Ma’rang and mating mawin Segeri also held between the royal family.
Barasa affiliated Gowa, Bone and Soppeng. Similarly Ma’rang and Segeri. Medium Labakkang with Gowa, although initially Labakkang a royal – King Luwu, Soppeng and Tanete. Tradition breed which is why society has to unite Pangkep blood in the shape of the Bugis Makassar .
Genealogi of king after kingdom of “Siang” under power of Karaengta Allu
Genealogy of the king – the king of afternoon after afternoon held in check Karaengta Allu are as follows:
(1) Karaeng Allu,
(2) Johor or Johoro ‘(Mappasoro) Matinroe’ ri Ponrok, who along Whitewater Palakka to Pariaman in the 17th century;
(3) Patolla Dg Malliongi
(4) Pasempa Dg Paraga
(5) Mangaweang Dg Sisurung
(6) Pacandak Dg Sirua (Karaeng Bonto – Bonto)
(7) Palambe Dg Pabali (Krg Tallanga), contemporaneous with the arrival of Dutch in Pangkajene ;
(8) Karaeng Kaluarrang of Labakkang
(9) Ince Wangkang from Malacca
(10) Sollerang Dg Malleja
(11) Andi Pappe Dg Massikki, derived from Soppeng
(12) Andi Papa Dg Masalle.
(13) Andi Jayalangkara Dg Sitaba.
(14) Andi Mauraga Dg Malliungang.
(15) Andi Burhanuddin.
(16) Andi Muri Dg Lulu.
Any such appointment ceremony of new king, the turn of the greatness of the king or other ceremonies associated with the king, it is required to attend “Anrong Appaka” in “Siang”, namely:
(1) Daeng ri Sengkaya,
(2) Lo’moka ri Kajuara
(3) Gallaranga ri Lesang,
(4) Gallaranga ri Baru – baru
After a four-bate’a Bate is present, then the inauguration or the show ‘Kalompoanga ri Noon’ can be considered valid. In addition to the four-bate’a Bate is also expected to attend “Oppoka” in Pacce’lang.
Put simply, the genealogy of King – King Day while under the domination of Gowa (A. Razak Dg Mile, PR: 1957) as follows: (A) King – the king of the descendants ‘ri Tumanurunga Bontang’ diperistri by the title ‘The Seven Arm’. It is not known how many generations! (B) Descendants Karaengta Allu (After Noon was conquered by the kingdom of Gowa), is also not known how many generations. (C) The descendants I Johor or Johoro ‘(Mappasoro’), best friend Palakka Whitewater, Whitewater Palakka which became the King of Bone since 1672. (D) King – the king who comes from the Kingdom Siang himself, from descent Pattola Dg Malliongi (in the Dutch VOC).
The result of archaeological research by the Hasanuddin University with Makassar Archaeological Institute said that the capital of the Kingdom Day lies in a location that is surrounded by a fortress city (batanna kotayya). Land surrounding the castle is now a sacred cemetery.
Chronology of the fort Siang (batanna kotayya) estimated U-shaped, both ends Siang River empties into the already dead. (Fadhillah and Irfan Mahmood, 2000: 27). Indications on the location of archaeological sites in the form of symptom change in a way the earth and deposition process have alienated the center of the coastal Kingdom afternoon. Afternoon setback, which is estimated to occur at the end of XVI century.
Gowa-Labakkang victory over Barasa give relatives the right to occupy the throne of the king of Gowa Barasa, title after its death: Karaeng Matinroe Kammasi ri is replaced by Karaeng Allu.
The latter is shift the focus of politics back to the afternoon, and seemed to revive the greatness of using the title Karaeng Siang Siang, also form a traditional council Anrong Appaka (four noble head): Kajuara Kare, Kare Sengkae, Lesang and Kare Kare recently. Each of the kare heads the small center of power and form a confederation under the authority of the new Afternoon (Islamic period).
Allu Karaeng also a place Kalompoang or Arajang of “Siang” under maintenance “Oppoka” in Paccelang. The findings of the excavation site of ceramic fragments in SengkaE, “Siang”, Bori Appaka, Plate and Bowl Bungoro form Ching BW, plash Cing, Swatow Bowl BW, BW Wangli Bowl, Sun Bowl BW, Sun White Plate, Plate Swatow, which comes from the XVII Century -XVIII.
There are also fragments of pottery such as vases Swankalok from XVI Century, BW Sun Bowl, Plate BW Sun, plate and jar Vietnam. The number of overall findings were 38 fragments of pottery. Ceramic Foreign Ching dynasty gave relative chronology of cultural layers Noon convey the relative periods of cultural layers domestic of “Siang”, who at least less derived from the XVII-XVIII Century (M Ali Fadhillah et al, 2000: 72). (*)